Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD
Common Symptoms in the Diagnosis of ADHD:
- Difficulty sitting still
- Trouble paying attention
- Inconsistent performance
- Disorganized or messy
- Easily distracted
- Difficulty completing tasks
- Trouble waiting turn
- Acts as if driven by a motor
- Frequent fidgeting
Ernest J. Bordini, Ph.D., Executive Director
Named a Distinguished Psychologist by the Florida Psychological Association
Ernest J. Bordini, Ph.D. is a clinical neuropsychologist with experience in the evaluation of children with a variety of neurodevelopmental disorder.
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Sample Articles from our CPANCF.COM Website:
ADHD Medications, A growing list of choices.
Are ADHD Medications Overprescribed?
- This disorder is common yet, it is complex and often misunderstood. Proper diagnosis is the foundation on which effective treatment and management is based.
Children with the disorder may be described as immature, may tend to always be on the go “as driven by a motor”, may be impulsive, and frequently act before thinking. They may suffer frequent reprimands from parents and teachers. Self-esteem is at risk, and they may become rejected by peers.
Adolescents may show less overactivity, but may have difficulty meeting the increased demands of middle school. Trouble with organization, planning, and meeting increased productivity requirements are common.
Adults may continue to have difficulty tolerating routine types of work, may shift jobs more frequently, and may have difficulty attending to details and organizing. There is increased risk for marital difficulties and traffic accidents.
Associated Disorders :
Proper identification and treatment of these disorders, when present, often improves the overall prognosis
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Motor Skill Deficits
Social Skills Deficits
Keeping a Head in School : A Student's...
For a more general understanding of the many disorders that often accompany ADHD try the following text:
ADHD with Comorbid Disorders: Clinical...
We have specialized in providing necessary services for behavior and skill deficits which accompany the disorder. A national consensus conference held in 1998 concluded that treatment involving both medication and psychotherapy was superior to either approach alone.
The following acclaimed book by Dr. Mel Levine provides a practical, readable and understandable approach suitable for parents and students alike:
- Information on this WEB SITE or others should be considered educational only and is not intended to be medical or psychological advice. Decisions about the care and diagnosis of your child should be made in consultation with your medical physician or psychologist.
- The Following is an example of many articles available in our Articles and Tips section:
A DOZEN TIPS FOR RETURNING THE ADHD CHILD TO SCHOOL
by Ernest J. Bordini, Ph.D. and C. Russell Clifton. Ph.D.
1. Set up positive expectations prior to returning
2. Get the child to identify what they hope to accomplish
3. Meet the teacher early and set up a daily, or weekly system to obtain feedback. When there is more than one teacher have one coordinate with the other teachers.
4. Don't overwhelm the teacher: It's far better to do a little right than to demand the impossible ideal program.
5. Set up a second meeting with the teacher to review the
6. Educate the teacher as to the problems encountered in the past and previously successful means of dealing with them.
7. Invite the teacher to study educational materials.
8. Ask for preferential seating near or at the front of the
9. If possible schedule demanding classes in the morning.
10. Explore the possibility of reducing task length if it is
11. Discuss possible rewards at home and school for staying on task.
12. Invite professionals and teachers to communicate with each other: Build a team !
ATTENTION-DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER & CO-EXISTING CONDITIONS
Ernest J. Bordini, Ph.D. , Licensed Psychologist
Presented to Chadd of Alachua County 3/21/02
ADHD is the single most prevalent psychiatric disorder among elementary school children. ADHD is a childhood disorder previously labeled hyperactivity, hyperkinesis, minimal brain dysfunction, minimal brain damage, minimal or minor cerebral dysfunction.
Prevalence rates from 3% to 5% of school age children. Males are over representing from 5 to 10 : 1. Depending on criteria uses some researchers estimate as many as 10-20% prevalence rates. Longitudinal studies of children with ADHD into adolescence found continued symptoms in 20% to 80% of probands studied.
About half of ADHD children have a coexisting oppositional or conduct disorder. These children show temper outbursts, argumentativeness, defiance, and aggressiveness.
A study by Taylor et al suggested the presence of oppositional (ODD) or conduct (CD) problems does not affect the probability of a positive response to stimulants. Children with ADD and CD respond to stimulant therapy just as well as those without a conduct disorder. The same study also showed that measures of family function had no relationship to stimulant response.
A study of 1300 children by Davidson et al., 1992, found no relationship between symptoms of hyperactivity and injury. But the coexistence of conduct disorder seemed to be a major risk factor in ADHD children. However, 16 to 22 year old ADHD individuals when matched with controls have almost four times the number of motor vehicle accidents and four time the rate of traffic citations (1993)
Nine to 10% (or more) of ADD children have learning disabilities (Halperin 1984). Up to 30 to 40 % of learning disabled children may also have ADHD (Levine, 1982, Hobrow, 1986). ADHD children in general tend to be behind in reading and arithmetic (Holborow and Berfrry 1986). The frequent co-existence of these disorders suggest that a thorough assessment be completed for these children.
The frequency of speech and language problems is inconsistent across studies, but are more likely to involve expressive rather than receptive language. This might involve dysfluent speech and problems of articulation. This more likely in those children with ADD and LD. A finding of reduced verbal fluency in ADHD children, was reported by Kozill, et. al., 1992.
Steven Henshaw, in a 1992 article in the JCCP, Number 60, 890 - 903 found treatment of behavior problems in ADHD children with learning problems is often not adequate if assistance for academic deficiencies is not provided.
Encorporesis and Enuresis are not unusual. Enuresis 43% vs 38% of matched normal children. 56% may have sleep difficulties.
ADD children may display nonlocalized "soft" neurological signs, poor eye hand coordination, and perceptual motor dysfunction. Slightly more than 50% ADD children have motor problems relative to a 35% base rate in normals. They may show motor overflow, motor impersistence, and poor handwriting. Many Perform poorly on Pegboard tasks.
Up to 25% of ADHD meet the criteria for anxiety or phobic disorder and 1/3 preadolescent children with anxiety showed 1/3 had ADHD. Higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder may predict a nonresponse to stimulant medication. However mild anxiety is not a contraindication to stimulant treatment.
A study published in the Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, in 1993, followed over a thousand children for fifteen years and found there is no greater than expected association between allergic disorders and ADHD.
The presence and severity of ADHD was evaluated in eighteen families with history of "generalized resistance to thyroid hormone". About 50% of the adults and 70% of the children met the criteria for ADHD. However, few people with ADHD have thyroid disorders. It is suggested if ADHD difficulties are present and there is a family history of thyroid difficulties, further evaluation may be indicated.
Over 50% of Tourette's syndrome individuals have attention deficit disorder but only 5% of ADHD children have Tourette's syndrome. Tourettes children with ADD exhibited significant differences from non ADD children on SSPT, TMT, and DS (Yates, 1994)
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